Two Years On: An Analysis of Russian State and Pro-Kremlin Information Warfare in the Context of the Invasion of Ukraine

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February marked two years since Russia's full-scale invasion of Ukraine and the onset of an accompanying information war. In the report "Two Years On", ISD analyses the evolution of Russian state and pro-Kremlin propaganda aimed at eroding international support for Ukraine.

Drawing on two years of ISD research, it exposes tactics used by pro-Kremlin actors and outlets to maintain influence despite EU sanctions: from disguised spin-off outlets, to coordinated networks, to single-purpose accounts with fake personas.

The report also highlights critical vulnerabilities within the West that these actors are poised to exploit, namely: grievances around the cost of support for Ukraine; a potential rise in isolationism in US foreign policy in the event of a Trump win in the Presidential elections; the expected gains of pro-Kremlin far-right parties in the upcoming European parliamentary elections; and accusations of hypocrisy levelled at Western governments regarding international conflicts, especially the ongoing Israel-Hamas conflict. As we reflect on this pivotal moment, we recognise the urgent need for united action by Western governments to decisively tip the military balance and support Ukraine's fight against Russian forces.

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Ein Service des deutschen Präventionstages.